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“过去的过去”——过去完成时用法归纳  

2011-11-23 23:29:32|  分类: 语法归纳 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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概念

过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即所谓“过去的过去”。

 

 

When we got to the cinema, the film had been on for five minutes.

过去完成时是一个相对的时态,表示的是“过去的过去”,只有和过去某一时间或某一动作相比较时才使用。过去完成时不能离开过去时间而独立存在。

构成

肯定句:had +过去分词

He had read the text three times by yesterday evening.

助动词had无人称和数的变化。

否定句:hadn’t +过去分词

He hadn’t read the text three times by yesterday evening.

疑问句:Had…+过去分词

Had he read the text three times by yesterday evening?

关键词

by + 过去的时间点

I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.  

 

 

by the end of + 过去的时间点

We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. 

 

常用结构

宾语从句:

当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。

She said that she had seen the film before. 

 

 

状语从句: 

在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。

When I got to the station, the train had already left.

 

After he closed the door, he left the classroom.

 

注意:before, after引导的时间状语从句中,由于before和 after本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。

与现在完成时比较

现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响,与现在有关;过去完成时则是一个相对的时态,它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去,更强调“过去的过去”,和过去某时或某动作相比较。

The bus has left already.

 

By the time they arrived, the bus had left.

 

 

与一般过去时比较

过去完成时在时间上强调“过去的过去”;而一般过去时只强调过去某一特定的时间。

过去完成时强调某动作在过去某时间或另一动作之前已完成,一般过去时仅表示动作或状态在过去某时间发生过,不强调与另一动作比较。

Mr Smith had lived in London for ten years before he came to China.

 

We learned 2000 words last year.

 

拓展用法

(该部分为高中内容,仅供参考)

1)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

 

2)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。

Hardly had he began to speak when the audience interrupted him.

 

It was the third time that she had been out of work that year.

 

 

3)用于表示与过去事实相反的虚拟条件从句中。

If I had got there earlier, I would have met Mr. Li.

 

 

   单项选择:

(   ) 1. He asked me _____ during the summer holidays.

     A. where I had been       B. where I had gone      C. where had I been  D. where had I gone

(   ) 2. What ______ Jane _______ by the time he was seven?

     A. did, do               B. has, done                    C did, did.       D. had, done

(   ) 3. I ______ 900 English words by the time I was ten。

     A. learned                B. was learning         C. had learned    D. learnt

(   ) 4. She ______ lived here for ______ years.

    A. had, a few               B. has, several            C. had, a lot of     D. has, a great deal of

(   ) 5. By the time my parents reached home yesterday, I ________ the dinner already.

    A had cooked           B. cooked              C. have cooked   D. was cooked

(   ) 6. She said she _________ the principle already

    A .has seen             B. saw                C. will see         D. had seen

(   ) 7. She had written a number of books ______ the end of last year.

    A. for                B. in                  C. by             D. at

(   ) 8. He _____ to play ____ before he was 11 years old.

    A had learned, piano                          B. had learned, the piano

    C. has learned, the piano                       D. learns ,piano.

(   ) 9. He _______ in the factory for three years before he joined the Army.

    A. has worked            B. works               C. had worked           D. will work

(   ) 10. By the end of last week, they ________ the bridge.

    A. has completed         B. completed            C. will complete    D. had completed

(   ) 11. Jim turned off the lights and then ________ the classroom.

    A. was left               B. had left               C. has left         D. left

(   ) 12. They _________ in Guangzhou since 2000.

    A. lived                  B. had lived             C. have lived     D. were living

(   ) 13. The train from Beijing _______ ten minutes ago.

    A. has arrived             B. was arriving         C. arrived         D. had arrived

(   ) 14. The man ________ his coat and went out.

    A. put on                B. had put on           C. will put on      D. was putting

(   ) 15. My mother________ in that factory at the age of 18.

    A. had worked              B. has worked            C. worked          D. works

 

动词填空:

1. We _____________ (paint) the house before we ______________ (move) in.

2. That rich old man _____________ (make) a will before he _____________ (die).

3. They _____________ (study) the map of the country before they ________ (leave).

4. The robbers _____________ (run) away before the policemen_______ (arrive).

5. I __________ (turn off) all the lights before I ____________ (go) to bed.

6. Paul __________ (go) out with Jane after he __________ (make)  a phone call.

7. Tom __________ (say) he ___________ (read) the book twice.

8. Our plan ____________ (fail) because we _____________ (make) a bad mistake.

9. When the chairman ____________ (finish) speaking, he ________ (leave) the hall.

10. The Reads __    ______  (have) lunch when I ___________(get) to their house.

11. When I ______________(arrive) at the station, he ________________(leave).

12. We _______________(learn) about 4000 English words by the end of last term.

13. I waited until he _______________(finish) his homework.

14. We were surprised at what she ________already ______(do)

15. She _________(not go) to Qingdao because she _________ (be) there before.

16. He ______________(not tell) you the news yet.

17. He said he _____________already_________(give) the book to the teacher.

18. I ______________(be) to Shanghai before.

19. She told me she _________________(be) to Sanya three times.

20. She ____________(play) the guitar while her sister____________(sing).

 

江苏13城市中考试题汇编:

1. 截止到2010年底为止,你去过美国多少次?(2011常州/镇江)

___________________________ by the end of 2010?

2. 到去年年底为止,我们又建了三个博物馆。(2010常州)

By the end of last year, ______________.

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