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牛津初中英语

Carry on till tomorrow

 
 
 

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“语序和时态”——宾语从句语法归纳  

2011-12-11 23:14:43|  分类: 语法归纳 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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宾语从句的概念

宾语是动作的承受者,它可以由名词、代词、名词短语或句子充当。当一个句子充当宾语时,这个句子

就叫做宾语从句。宾语从句是名词性从句,在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或形容词的宾

语。

 

宾语从句的分类

根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。

1、that 引导的宾语从句

    原句如果是陈述句,变宾语从句时要用 that 引导,that没有实在意义,只起到引导的作用,在口语和
    非正式文体中常可省略。

He said (that) he wanted to stay at home.

2、疑问词引导的宾语从句

原句如果是特殊疑问句,变宾语从句时要用特殊疑问词引导。这些连接词包括连接代词what(whom),

which, who, whose和连接副词when, how, where, why,这些连接代词在句中既有连接从句的作用,

又在句中充当句子的成分。

Do you know who (whom) they are waiting for?

3、whether /if 引导的宾语从句

原句若是一般疑问句,变宾语从句时用whether /if 引导,whether /if意为“是否”。

I don’t know if/whether he will come tomorrow.

 

◇注意事项:

通常情况下whether /if 可以互换。但以下情况只能用whether。

(1) 后面跟有or not。

I don’t know whether or not it rains.  

I wonder whether we stay or whether we go.

(2) 在介词后。

I'm interested in whether he likes English.

I worry about whether I hurt her feelings.

(3) 在不定式前。

He hasn't decided whether to visit the old man.

I don't know whether to go.

He hasn't decided whether to go by bus or by train.

(4) 引导主语从句(置于句首)和表语从句。

Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否能来还是个问题。

The question is whether we can catch the bus.问题是我们能否赶上公共汽车。

 

宾语从句的语序

宾语从句的语序要使用陈述句语序。其顺序为“连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分”。

Can you tell me how I can get to the zoo?

 

宾语从句的时态

1、如果主句是一般现在时,从句可根据需要选用任何时态。

I don't know when he will come back.

Please tell us where he is.

Can you tell me how I can get to the railway station?

2、如果主句是过去时,宾语从句可根据需要选用过去时态,即一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时

    或过去完成时的某一种形式。如果从句的动作发生在主句之前,则从句要用过去完成时态。

He told me that he was preparing for the sports meet.

He asked if you had written to Peter.

He said that he would go back to the U.S. soon.

 

◇注意事项:

英语中所有的归纳都是相对的,没有绝对一说。一切应根据具体情境采用合适的时态。主句为过去时,

宾语从句用现在时的情况也时有的,只要从句内容到说这句话时依然存在。虽然这种情境到目前为止

在中考中并未涉及。

You said you do not have enough time to do your homework. (9A 47)

You also said that you do not have enough time for your hobbies. (9A 47)

以上两句出自9A 第三单元Sigmund Friend给Millie的回信。表明到他回信时Millie这些情况依然存在。

 

3、如果宾语从句所表示的是客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象或习惯性动作等,不管主句用什么时态,

    从句时态都用一般现在时。

Our teacher said that January is the first month of the year.

Scientists have proved that the earth turns around the sun.

 

◇注意事项:

Could you tell me…是用来征询对方的意见,语气委婉,并不表示过去。

例:Could you tell me when we will visit the History Museum?

 

宾语从句的转换

宾语从句可与简单句进行转换。如果宾语从句的主语和主句的主语是同一个人时,可以用“疑问词+

不定式”做宾语的简单句结构。

I don’t know what I should do next.

I don’t know what to do next.

He didn’t know where he would live.

He didn’t know where to live.

 

◇江苏13城市中考试题汇编

(   ) 1. ----Why did Miss Wang look so worried when we saw her?

          ----Because she wondered ________. (08南京)

    A.where did the other students go                         

    B. when would the policeman come  

    C. what her students have done during the trip    

    D. if her students had survived the earthquake

(   ) 2. I wonder _________. (08苏州)

    A.how much cost these shoes                     B. how much these shoes cost   

    C. how much do these shoes cost               D. how much are these shoes cost

(   ) 3. I'm new here. Could you please tell me _______? (08连云港)

    A.what is the building used for                      B. when does the first class begin  

    C. where is the dining hall                            D. how many classes our school has

(   ) 4. The students are discussing ________ a more meaningful holiday. (08淮安)

    A.how they can spend            B. how will they spend              C. how can they spend

(   ) 5. ----Have you decided _______ the children in the poor areas?

          ----By sending them books and schoolbags. (08南通)

    A.how you will help                                    B. what you will give 

    C. when will you call                                  D. how much will you send

(   ) 6. ----Excuse me, could you tell me _______?

          ----There's an e-shop on the third floor. You can make it there. (08泰州)

    A.where can I have my MP4 repaired           B. where I can have my bMP4 repaired  

    C. how can I go to the e-shop                      D. if there was an e-shop nearby

(   ) 7. ----Excuse me, could you tell me ______?

          ----Sorry, I'm new here. (08镇江)

    A.where is the railway station                      B. how can I get to the railway station  

    C. where the railway station was                  D. which bus I shall take to the railway station

(   ) 8. ----Did Mrs King leave a message?

          ----Yes. She wanted to know __________ this Sunday. (09南京)

    A. who you would go shopping                B. if you would go shopping with her  

    C. that you will go shopping                     D. when will you go shopping with her

(   ) 9. ----I’d like to know __________.

          ----At 6:30. (09苏州)

    A. when does your mother usually cook breakfast

    B. how your mother usually cooks breakfast

    C. when your mother usually cooks breakfast  

    D. how does your mother usually cook breakfast

(   ) 10. ----Do you know _________, Mike?

            ----Sure. From May 1, 2010 to October 31, 2010. (09南通)

    A. when will World Expo Shanghai be held  

    B. when World Expo Shanghai will be held 

    C. how soon will World Expo Shanghai be held  

    D. how soon World Expo Shanghai will be held

(   ) 11. ----Do we have to hold our English party in the classroom?

            ----Well, I don’t know _________ if not here. (09扬州)

    A. when can we do it                              B. when we can do it  

    C. where can we do it                      D. where we can do it

(   ) 12. Could you tell me___________? (09镇江)
           A. which team won the first prize in the NBA finals last year
           B. how long has Obama been the President of the USA
          C. when did the terrible earthquake happen in Sichuan
          D. why can’t so many college students find jobs

(   ) 13. ----Can you tell me _________ for the 60th China National Day?

            ----A wonderful parade. (09连云港)

    A. what is going to be held               B. who is going to be invited  

    C. how much money will be raised    D. how long will it last

(   ) 14. Mr. Smith is searching the Internet to find out _________. (09淮安)

    A. where will the next Expo(世博会) be held  

    B. when will the next Expo start  

    C. what will the next Expo be held for  

    D. how many countries will take part in the next Expo

(   ) 15. ----The light in his room is still on. Do you know ________?

            ----In order to prepare for the coming exam. (09常州)

    A. if he works hard                                  B. why he stays up so late  

    C. why is he so busy                               D. when he will stop working

(   ) 16. The picture shows us _______ in Xuzhou in the past. (09徐州)

    A. what everyday life was like           B. what was everyday life like  

    C. how everyday life was like            D. how was everyday life like

(   ) 17. ----We don’t know __________.

             ----It is said that she was born in the UK. (09泰州)

    A. what she is      B. where is she from    C. where she is from    D. when was she born

(   ) 18. I don’t know ______ the charity show tomorrow. Can you tell me? (09宿迁)

    A. when we start  B. when did we start    C. when we will start   D. when will we start

(   ) 19. The exchange students will leave soon. We had better ask our monitor___ a farewell party.

     (2010南通)

    A. when will we have                              B. when we will have  

    C. when we would have                          D. when would we have

(   ) 20. ----Could you tell me _______? (2010苏州)

            ----He is in the library.

    A. where Simon was   B. where is Simon        C. where was Simon   D. where Simon is

(   ) 21. ----Do you know ______? (2010扬州)

            ----I’m not sure. Maybe an artist.

    A. what the man with long hair is              B. what is the man with long hair   

    C. who the man with long hair is              D. who is the man with long hair

(   ) 22. ----I seem to be lost. Could you tell me _____? (2010连云港)

            ----Sure. You can take the No. 3 bus to get there.

    A. where is the nearest hospital                        B. how long it will take me to the airport  

    C. how far is my trip to the Olympic Village      D. how I can get to the National Museum

(   ) 23. ----What did Jack ask you just now? (2010常州)

            ----He wanted to know how long ______ when I reached the cinema.

    A. had the film been on                             B. the film had started  

    C. the film had lasted                               D. had the film ended

(   ) 24. ----Could you tell me _________? (2010泰州)

            ----He is quick and brave.

    A. what is he   B. what his name is         C. what he is like        D. what is he like

(   ) 25. ----That actor often joins in different activities in Beijing. Do you know ______?

            ----For 5 years. (2010镇江)

    A. how soon he will come back                B. how long he has stayed there  

    C. when he went there                             D. when he will come here

(   ) 26. Could you please tell me _____? I want to see him right now. (2010徐州)

    A. where does Jim live  B. where did Jim live   C. where Jim lived   D. where Jim lives

(   ) 27. Most children are interested in amazing things, and they wonder ______. (2011南京)

     A. when can they see UFOs                    B. how can elephants walk on tiptoe

    C. why do fish sleep with their eyes open   D. whey there is no plant life without lightning

(   ) 28. ----Can you tell me how many colours ________ in a rainbow? (2011苏州)

            ----Seven.

    A. there are                B. are there                 C. they are                        D. are they

(   ) 29. Could you tell me how long _______ the football club? (2011无锡)

    A. you have joined       B. have you joined        C. you have been in  D. have you been in

(   ) 30. In the UK, a woman usually doesn’t like to be asked _______. (2011常州/镇江)

    A. whether she had been married              B. what is her age  

    C. how much she weighs                        D. where she comes from

(   ) 31. ----Simon, I wonder _______. (2011南通)

            ----Last Saturday.

    A. when the foreign visitors arrived           B. when did the foreign visitors arrive  

    C. when the foreign visitors will arrive      D. when will the foreign visitors arrive

(   ) 32. ----Could you tell me ______? (2011泰州)

             ----It’s twenty minutes by underground.

    A. how can I get to your school              

    B. how much it costs to get to your school  

    C. how far it is from your home to your school  

    D. how long does it take me to get to your school

(   ) 33. ----Excuse me. Could you tell me ______? (2011盐城)

            ----It will leave at 4:00 p.m.

    A. how will you go to Shanghai               B. how you will go to Shanghai  

    C. when will the bus leave for Shanghai     D. when the bus will leave for Shanghai

(   ) 34. Excuse me, I lost my way. Will you please tell me ______? (2011宿迁)

    A. where am I    B. where I am              C. where you are   D. where are you

(   ) 35. ----I’m new here. Could you please tell me _______? (2011连云港)

            ----Sure. It’s over there behind that tower.

    A. where the youth centre is                     B. when the library opens  

    C. how far is the amusement park             D. how can I get to the underground station

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