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现在完成时(Present perfect tense)基本概念  

2011-02-05 13:28:15|  分类: 语法归纳 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Present perfect tense (现在完成时)

项目

内容

备注

概念

◇表示一个过去发生的动作对现在产生的结果和影响。(有的语法书上称之为现在完成时的“完成用法”。)

Eddie has eaten my food.

(Eddie ate the food and now Hobo has nothing to eat.)

◇表示一个从过去某个时间开始,延续到现在,并有可能继续延续下去的动作或状态。(有的语法书上称之为现在完成时的“未完成用法”。)

Eddie has lived with Mille since he was born.

Eddie has lived with Mille for four years.

 

构成

助动词has/have +动词的过去分词

 

肯定形式

They have finished their homework.

He has finished his homework.

(缩略形式:He’s finished his homework.)

否定形式

They haven’t finished their homework.

He hasn’t finished his homework.

 

疑问形式

Have they finished their homework?

Yes, they have. / No, they haven’t.

 

关键词

already(用于肯定句), yet(用于否定句和疑问句), since+一点时间, for+一段时间, never, ever, three times(其它表示频率的词, once, twice等) before, recently, in the past/last few years, so far, this month, today, now

◇表示过去某一个动作的结果,现在情况依然存在。这时一般不用时间状语。

I have lost my pen.

◇包括现在时间在内的时间状语如today, this month, this week等有时也用现在完成时。

 

 

◇同步练习

A. 用所给动词的适当形式填空:

1.         My sister __________(have) this dictionary for about five years. 

2.         We ____________ (know) each other for about two years. 

3.         He ___________(live) in Nanjing since he was a child. 

4.         This is the first time I __________ (meet) Tom. 

5.         How many English words ______ your sister _______ (learn) in the past two years?  

6.         _______ you ________ (travel) to Shanghai before?

7.         Linda_______________ (not finish) reading the book yet. 

8.         I ___________ (not hear) from him recently.

9.         The train ______ already _________. (leave)

10.     We __________(be) there many times in the last three years.

11.     He ____________(not read) the book before.

12.     ----_______ you _______(see) the film yet?

          ----Yes. We saw it yesterday.

13.     ----________he ever__________(visit) England? 

          ----Never.

 

B. 把下列句子改为否定句和疑问句:

1.         The bus has left.________________________________________________

2.         I have found my bike. ___________________________________________

3.         He has told the girl about this._____________________________________

4.         My mother has already finished her housework._______________________

 

C. 对划线部分提问:

1.         Tom has read newspapers for two hours. ____________________________

2.         He has studied English since 2005._________________________________

3.         My father has given me a new pen._________________________________

4.         My brother has found my lost pen._________________________________

 

 

 

Keys:

A. 用所给动词的适当形式填空:

1. has had  2. have known  3. has lived  4. have met  5. has, learnt  6. Have, travelled 

7. hasn’t finished  8. haven’t heard  9. has, left  10. have been  11. hasn’t read 

12. Have, seen  13. Has, visited 

 

B. 把下列句子改为否定句和疑问句:

1. The bus hasn’t left. 

    Has the bus left? Yes, it has. No, it hasn’t.

2. I haven’t found my bike.

    Have you found your bike? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.

3. He hasn’t told the girl about this.

    Has he told the girl about this? Yes, he has. No, he hasn’t.

4. My mother hasn’t finished her housework yet.

    Has your mother finished her housework yet?

   Yes, she has. No, she hasn’t.

 

C. 对划线部分提问:

1. How long has Tom read newspapers?

2. How long has he studied English?

3. What has your father given you?

4. Who has found your lost pen?

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