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现在完成时中的“延续性”问题  

2011-02-05 21:18:28|  分类: 语法归纳 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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    英语中有些动词表示的是一种短暂的动作,没有持续性,即“一发生就结束”的动作,这类动词一般称为“非延续性动词”(亦叫点动词或瞬间动词或终止性动词),在现在完成时中,不能同表示一段时间的状语或How long连用。常见的这类动词有:go, come, leave, arrive, lose, join, borrow, die, begin. 这些动词如果要跟一段时间连用,必须改成相应的具有延续性的词。主要一些动词变化形式如下:(课本P32)

非延续性动词

延续性动词

现在完成时形式

buy

have

He has had this motorcycle for two years.

borrow

keep

She has kept this book for three weeks.

leave

be away

They have been away from home for two days.

arrive/reach/

get/move

be in/at

Kitty has been in Hong Kong for a month.

come/go

be in/at

My mum has been in Beijing for two months.

begin/start

be on

The film has been on for an hour.

stop/finish/end

be over

The meeting has been over for two hours.

die

be dead

The lamb has been dead for some time.

join

be in/be a member of

Simon has been a member of the Football Club since last year.

become

be

How long has your sister been a teacher?

open

be open

The shop has been open for ten hours.

close

be closed

The market has been closed since 2010.

get married

be married

They have been married for fifteen years.

get up

be up

They have been up for two hours.

come back

be back

The lost cat has been back since last night.

fall asleep

be asleep

The dog has been asleep for several hours.

go out

be out

The old man has been out since last Friday.

catch a cold

have a cold

How long have you had a cold?

使用注意事项:

a)  非延续性动词可用于现在完成时,但不能与表示一段时间的时间状语连用;

    The train has arrived.火车到了。

    The train has been here for two hours. 火车到这里已经两个小时了。

    The boy has left. 那个男孩走了。

    The boy has been away for two days. 那个男孩离开已经两天了。

b)  表示一段时间的时间状语一般为:

    ①How long…?

    ②for +一段时间;

    ③since+一点时间。

c)  非延续性动词的否定形式可以与一段时间连用。

    He hasn’t left home for a month.

    I haven’t seen you for a long time.

 

 

A. 用所给的时间状语改写句子:

1. He left Nanjing three days ago. (for three days)

  ________________________________________

2. The poor man has died. (for many years)

  ________________________________________

3. We have bought this house. (for a long time)

  ________________________________________

4. The Greens have come to China. (since 1998)

  ________________________________________

5. Sally borrowed this book from the school library two weeks ago. (for two weeks)

  ________________________________________

 

B. 翻译句子:

1.         这台电脑我已经买了很长时间了。

2.         这本杂志他已经借了几乎一个星期了。

3.         自上个周五以来这些游客一直呆在南京。

4.         那位老人去世已经有相当一段时间了。

5.         电影开始多久了?

6.         Kitty离开已经两天了吗?

7.         Sandy加入这个俱乐部已经三年了。

8.         这封信我收到已经半个月了。

 

江苏13城市中考试题汇编:

单项选择:

(   ) 1. ----Did you borrow the comic book from the library? (2010南通)

          ----Yes. I ________ it for three days. I’ll return it this afternoon.

    A. borrowed               B. kept                C. have borrowed       D. have kept

(   ) 2. Look, Peter is still reading in the library. He _______ here for two hours. (09南通)

    A. has come               B. has been          C. was                       D. came

(   ) 3. ----So far, how long ______ you _______ the city? (09泰州)

          ----For two years.

    A. have; been in           B. did; come to   C. have; gone to          D. will; go to

(   ) 4. The teachers _______ the office for a few minutes when we arrived. We didn’t meet them.

      (09常州)

    A. had been away from                     B. had left  

    C. have been away from                   D. have left

(   ) 5. ----______ did the important meeting_______? (08宿迁)

        ---- For about two hours.

    A. When; begin                                B. How long; begin  

    C. When; last                                   D. How long; last

(   ) 6. ----How long have Mr and Mrs Smith________? (08无锡)

          ----For more than twenty years.

    A. married                   B. had married     C. got married            D. been married

(   ) 7. ----_______ did your uncle leave his hometown? (08扬州)

          ----He ________ for nearly twenty years.

    A. When; has left                                    B. When; has been away  

    C. How long; has left                               D. How long; has been away

(   ) 8. ----Betty, did your son get married in the year 2000? (08镇江)

           ----Yes, he ________ for about eight years.

    A. has married            B. has been married     C. has got married       D. was married

 

翻译句子:

1.  你能告诉我这本书你借了多久了吗?(08常州)

    Could you tell me _____________?

2.  这条连衣裙她已经买了两周了。(09连云港)

    She _____________________________.

3.  这本书孩子们已经借了一个月了。(2010淮安)

    The children ____________________________.

 

 

Keys:

A. 用所给的时间状语改写句子:

1. He has been away from Nanjing for three days.

2. The poor man has been dead for many years.

3. We have had this house for a long time.

4. The Greens have been in China since 1998.

5. Sally has kept this book from the school library for two weeks.

 

B. 翻译句子:

1. I have had this computer for a long time.

2. He has kept this magazine for nearly a week.

3. These tourists have been in Nanjing since last Friday.

4. The man has been dead for quite some time.

5. How long has the film been on?

6. Has Kitty been away for two days?

7. Sandy has been in the club for three years./Sandy has been a member of the club for three years.

8. I have had this letter for half a month.

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