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牛津初中英语

Carry on till tomorrow

 
 
 

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每个人都是一座山,世上最难攀越的山其实是自己。 往上走,即便一小步,也有新高度。

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现在完成时与一般过去时的区别  

2011-02-06 14:01:45|  分类: 语法归纳 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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◇现在完成时和一般过去时都表示一个在过去完成的动作,但现在完成时强调的是与现在的关系,如对现

在产生的结果或影响等,属于现在时范围,谈论的是现在的情况。而一般过去时只表示动作在过去某一时

刻发生,不表示和现在的关系,现在情况可能已发生变化。

Who opened the door? (“谁开的门?”只强调过去开门这一动作,门现在可能已关上。)

Who has opened the door? (“谁把门开了?”强调门现在依然还开着。)

 

◇现在完成时不能与明确的过去时间状语连用,如:three days ago, last year, yesterday, last Sunday,

in 2008等等。如句中有以上这些明确的过去时间状语,应用一般过去时。再有,过去发生的一个动作,

如现在情况已经发生的变化,也应用一般过去时。

☆特别提醒:如果这些过去时间状语前有since,表示“自过去某一时间一直延续到现在”,应用现在完

成时。

  He finished reading the book the day before yesterday.

  I put my ruler in my pencil-box, but I can’t find it now.

  My cousin has been in Nanjing since 2009.

 

◇现在完成时不与when引导的特殊疑问句连用,when后只用一般过去时表示已发生的动作。但现在完成

时可与where, why等疑问词连用。如:Where have you been? (你去过哪里了?)

  ----The train has left.

  ----When did the train leave?

 

◇since引导的时间状语从句后面用一般过去时,只有前面的主句才用现在完成时。

We have known each other since we came to the school two years ago.

 

◇有些时间状语,如this morning, this month, tonight等,既可以与一般过去时连用,又可以与现在完成

时连用,但内涵不同。与一般过去时连用时,表示与“现在”无关,时间已成为过去。而与现在完成时

连用,则表示包括“现在”在内。

I saw him this morning. (时间已不在上午了。)

I have seen him this morning. (说话时间还是上午。)

He lived in New York for eight years. (他现在已经不在纽约住了。)

He has lived in New York for eight years. (他现在还在纽约居住。)

 

◇同步练习

动词填空:

1.         I ___________(see) Tom last Friday.

2.         ________you ________(go) to the Great Wall last summer?

3.         ----Where ______ you ______(put) my pen?

            ----I _______(put) it in my pencil-box, but it’s nowhere to be found.

4.         When ______ you _______(start) to live in China?

5.         ----The train ____________ (leave) already.

            ----When ________ the train _________(leave)?

6.         It is five years since I ________(meet) you last.

7.         Where _______ you ______(be) for the last two weeks?

8.         I _________ (lose) my pen in the bedroom. I have to write with a pencil.

 

单项选择:

(   ) 1. ----Where _______ the recorder? I can’t see it anywhere.

          ---- I _______ it right here. But now it’s gone!

       A. did you put; have put                  B. have you put; put

      C. had you put; was putting              D. were you putting; have put

(   ) 2. My father ________ here since he _______ to this school.

     A. taught; came                                   B. has taught; came

    C. taught; has come                            D. has taught; has come

(   ) 3. I am sorry you’ve missed the train. It _______ 10 minutes ago. (山东)

    A. left            B. has left              C. has been left      D. had left

(   ) 4. Hi! Jim! Nice to meet you again! It’s one year since I last ________ you.(重庆)

    A. saw           B. see                    C. seeing               D. have seen

(   ) 5. ---- Have you visited the Dinosaur World, Elsa? (宁波)

           ---- Yes, I _____ it yesterday.

    A. have visited  B. had visited         C. visited               D. visit

(   ) 6. ---- Nice to see you. I _______ you for a long time. (南京)

          ---- I ______ in Bejing. I’ve just come back.

    A. hadn’t seen; am                      B. haven’t seen; was  

    C. didn’t see; will be                    D. haven’t seen; shall be

(   ) 7. ----What is the weather like this summer here?

          ---- There ______ very little rain.

    A. has            B. has been            C. are             D. have been

(   ) 8. When _____you _______ your dictionary?

    A. did; lose   B. has; lost          C. will; lose  D. does; lose

(   ) 9. Where ______ you _______? Which answer is not right?

    A. are; going                               B. have; been  

   C. did; go                                     D. are; doing

(   ) 10. There ______ many great changes in my hometown since ten years ago.

    A. were        B. have               C. are                 D. have been  

 

 

 

 

 

Keys:

动词填空:

1. saw  2. Did, go  3. have, put, put  4. did, start  5. has left, did, leave  6. met  7. have, been 

8. have lost 

 

单项选择:

1~5 BBAAC  6~10 BBADD

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