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牛津初中英语

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被动语态语法归纳(Passive Voice)(最新更新)  

2011-03-17 17:28:40|  分类: 语法归纳 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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概念:

英语有两种语态,主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成。被动语态表示主语是谓语动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成。一般说来,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态,汉语往往用“被”、“受”、“给”等词来表示被动含义。

 

构成:

被动语态由“助动词be+动词的过去分词”构成。被动语态的时态变化只改变be的形式,过去分词部分不变。疑问句和否定句的变化形式也是如此。各种时态形式表如下:

 

一般时态

进行时态

完成时态

现在

am/is/are+P.P.(过去分词)

am/is/are+being+P.P.

has/have+been+P.P.

过去

was/were+P.P.

was/were+being+P.P.

had+been+P.P.

将来

shall/will+be+P.P.

 

 

另:含有情态动词的被动语态构成为“情态动词+be+P.P.”

    不定式的被动语态构成为“to be done”

1. English is spoken in many countries. (一般现在时)

2. Who was this article written by? (一般过去时)

3. An important meeting will be held in our school. (一般将来时)

4. A new bridge is being built in the city. (现在进行时)

5. Everything has been done by him so far. (现在完成时)

6. Something must be done to protect wild animals. (情态动词)

 

使用范围:

①不知道或不必指出动作的执行者

    These books are written for children. / We were asked to sing a song.

②强调动作的承受者,这时可带有by引起的短语。

    More trees must be planted by us next year.

    A new machine was invented by Uncle Wang last month.

③当动作的执行者不是人时,多用被动语态

    The whole village was washed away by the flood.

④表示客观的说明常用“It’s +过去分词”句型。

    It is said that Lucy has gone abroad.

    这类句型有:

    It’s said that ….据说……

    It’s reported that….据报道……

    It’s believed that….大家相信……

 

主动变被动4大步骤:

1、把原主动语态中的宾语变为被动语态中的主语,如为代词,宾格形式须变为主格形式。

2、把动词变为被动形式即be +过去分词,并注意其人称和数随主语的变化,而动词的时态则保持

      不变。

3、原主动语态中的主语如需要则放在by后面变成by的宾语,如为代词,主格形式须变为宾格形式,

     如不需要则可省略。

4、其它成分(定语、状语)不变。

      Everybody likes this girl. ---- This girl is liked by everybody.

      He wrote a letter. ---- A letter was written by him.

 

被动语态注意事项:

1、不定式符号to在被动语态中不可省。在主动语态中,如果感官动词和使役动词后面的宾语补足语是动词,这个动词前往往不带to,但在被动语态中要带to。

I saw him climb up the hill.   

He was seen to climb up the hill.

We heard him sing in his room just now.

He was heard to sing in his room just now.

 

2、主动语态中若有两个宾语,变为被动语态时,只将其中一个宾语变成主语,另一个宾语不变。主动结构中的间接宾语变为主语时,直接宾语仍然保留在谓语后面;直接宾语变为主语时,间接宾语前通常加上介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定,常为for或to 。

例如:

1.         We gave him some books.

            He was given some books (by us). 或 Some books were given to him (by us).

2.         He gave me a book.  A book was given to me by him.

3.         He showed me a ticket.  A ticket was shown to me by him.

4.         My father bought me a new bike.  A new bike was bought for me by my father.

5.         A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.

            My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

6.         The boss made the little boy do heavy work.

            The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

 

3、一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。

We can’t laugh at him.  He can’t be laughed at by us.

He listens to the radio every day.  The radio is listened to by him every day.

The nurse is taking care of the sick man.  The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.

 

4、主动语态中如有复合宾语,变为被动语态时,只将复合宾语中的逻辑主语变成主语,其余部分不变。

例如:

They asked him to take the medicine.  He was asked to take the medicine.

We found him working in the fields.  He was found working in the fields.

 

不使用被动语态的几种情况:

1、不及物动词不能用于被动语态。如:appear, die, disappear, end, fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit,

spread, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.例如:

What was happened to him?(错误)

What happened to him? (正确)

 

2、系动词(包括感官动词)无被动语态(keep除外),用主动形式表示被动意义。如:appear, be,

become, fall, feel, get, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn。

The flower smells sweet.

The dish tastes delicious.

The cloth feels very soft.

It sounds good.

 

3、有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。

This pen writes well.

This new book sells well.

 

4、want, need, require, worth等词后面可以用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。例如:

The children need looking after.

The table wants cleaning.

 

〖同步强化〗

A. 用所给动词的适当形式填空:

1.         I __________(tell) to give a talk yesterday.

2.         The song ___________(write) by a worker and now it _________(become) very popular.

3.         We ___________(make) a trip to the West Lake as soon as the work __________(finish).

4.         The Great Wall ___________(know) all over the world.

5.         He said, “Your books must__________(take) care of.”

6.         The TV play ___________(show) when we got home.

7.         The tall building ________(put) up last year.

8.         The street lights _________usually _________(turn) on at 7:00 pm in summer.

9.         This song _________( not like) by everybody.

10.     He _________(give) a ticket to the film.

11.     Most science books _________(write) in English.

12.     A computer _________often ______ (use) in the bank.

13.     Can rice _______(grow) in water?

14.     How many holes will___________(dig) tomorrow?

15.     This picture __________(look) nice.

16.     ---- I’d like to buy that coat. ---- I’m sorry it ________(sell) out.

17.     ----What _________(happen) to him? -----He fell off his bike and hurt himself.

18.     The students was made __________(do) a lot of homework every day.

19.     This book ____________(sell) well on the market.

20.     Your coat needs ______________(wash). 

单项选择:

(   ) 1. The library books _______on time.

    A. return               B. must                 C. must be returned              D. returned

(   ) 2. The boy is always made _______ his face in the morning.

    A. wash             B. to wash          C. washing                 D. washed

(   ) 3. Mr Brown has stopped smoking since he _______on.

    A. will operate                                 B. will be operated

    C. operated                                   D. was operated

(   ) 4. The match ______. Let’s go to watch it.

    A. is holding        B. held                C. is being held           D. was held

(   ) 5. A talk on Chinese history _______ in the school next week.

    A. is given           B. has been given  C. will be given           D. will give

(   ) 6. What ______ this dictionary _______?

    A. does; call        B. is; called          C. does; called            D. is; call

(   ) 7. English _______ in many countries.

    A. is speaking    B. is spoken          C. speaks                   D. speak

(   ) 8. ---- When ______ the story______ ? ---- A month ago.

    A. was; happened                             B. did; happen 

    C. is; happened                               D. does; happen

(   ) 9. A lot of new roads _____ built in the west of China.

    A. must                 B. must be             C. has                   D. have

(   ) 10. The medicine ______ cool, clean and dry.

   A. must keep       B. must be kept   C. must be carried  D. must be in

(   ) 11. In our campus, rubbish ________ everywhere. (泰州)

   A. mustn’t be put   B. needn’t be put    C. can’t put  D. may not put

(   ) 12. The trees must _______ three times a week. (长沙)

   A. water              B. is watering         C. be watered      D. waters

(   ) 13. People can _____ running everywhere. Do you know what ____? (镇江)

   A. see; has happened                               B. see; happens  

   C. be seen; is happened                           D. be seen; is happening

(   ) 14. The boy _______ to get supper ready after school.

   A. were told        B. was told          C. is telling          D. tells

(   ) 15. ---- Did you go to Jim’s birthday party? ---- No, I _______.(北京)

   A. am not invited                              B. wasn’t invited  

   C. haven’t invited                              D. didn’t invite

(   ) 16. Both Lily and Lucy _______ to the party yesterday. (黑龙江)

   A. invited            B. was invited      C. had invited      D. were invited

(   ) 17. A lot of food _____ to that country after the war was over. (南通)

   A. was sent         B. are sent           C. is sending        D. sent

(   ) 18. ---- When _____ this kind of computer ______?  (宁波)

            ---- Two years ago.

   A. was; used        B. did; use           C. is; used           D. does; use

(   ) 19. A talk on Chinese history _____ in the school hall next week. (天津)

   A. be given          B. has been given  C. will be given   D. will give

(   ) 20. Chinese _______ by the largest number of people. (长沙)

   A. speak              B. is speaking      C. speaks            D. is spoken

(   ) 21. ---- But where are the books? (武汉)

           ---- Don’t worry. They _______ here in no time.

   A. have sent                                    B. will be sent     

   C. are sending                                  D. have been sent

(   ) 22. Man-made satellites have ________into space by many countries.

   A. sent up              B. be sent up          C. send up      D. been sent up

(   ) 23. The windows of our classroom ________ once a week.

   A. is cleaned        B. are cleaned      C. Was cleaned   D. be cleaned

(   ) 24 A strange noise _______ by Mr Henry last night.

   A. heard         B. is heard             C. Had heard          D. was heard

(   ) 25. Milk, meat, eggs and vegetables _____on the farm.

   A. produce   B. are produced      C. produced        D. was produced

(   ) 26. How many kilos of milk _____ produced on Green Lake Farm last year?

   A. are                 B. was                C. had                 D. be

(   ) 27. She is often ______ tidying up the classroom.

   A. seeing      B. seen                C. saw                D. sees

(   ) 28. ---- I’d like to buy that coat. ---- I’m sorry ______.

   A. it sold   B. it’s selling        C. it’s been sold    D. it had been sold

(   ) 29. Great changes ______ in the city, and a lot of factories ______.

   A. have been taken place, have been set up

   B. have taken place, have been set up

   C. are taken place, are set up

   D. were taken place, were set up

(   ) 30. This picture ______ very nice.

   A. looks         B. is looked            C. look                  D. is looking

(   ) 31. This story _____ in Paris before the First world War.

   A. happens   B. was happened    C. is happened      D. happened

(   ) 32. Now these magazines ________ in the library for a long time.

      A. have kept                                B. are keeping  

      C. have been keeping                 D. have been kept

(   ) 33. Good care _________such things.

   A. should take of                        B. should be taken 

   C. should be taking                    D. should be taken of

(   ) 34. The room _____ cool in summer and warm in winter.

   A. feels        B. is felt              C. feels to be       D. is felt to be

(   ) 35---- I’d like to buy that coat. ---- I’m sorry ________.

   A. is sold      B. it’s selling        C. it’s been sold   D. it had been sold

 

将下列句子改为被动语态

1. We call her Lily. (改为被动语态)

  _____________________________________________

2. When did they make these cars? (改为被动语态)

  _____________________________________________

3. Who will look after the children? (改为被动语态)

  _____________________________________________

4. The song was liked by them ten years ago. (改为主动语态)

  _____________________________________________

5. Can the computer be used in this room? (用we做主语,改为主动语态)

  _____________________________________________

6. She is often heard to sing English songs. (用people做主语,改为主动语态)

  _____________________________________________

7. Mr White heard a strange noise last night.

   ____________________________________

8. We need more rice.

   ____________________________________

9. The girl looked after those children very well.

   ____________________________________

10. People may catch fish in the river.

   ____________________________________

11. Shanghai produces big ships.

   ____________________________________

12. We can see no stars in the daytime.

   ____________________________________

13. We must clean our classroom this morning.

   ____________________________________

 

D. 翻译句子:

1.对老人说话要有礼貌。

   ____________________________________

2.应该更加关注环保。

   ____________________________________

3.他的房间昨天打扫过了。

   ____________________________________

4.南京可以种稻米。

   ____________________________________

 

附:各种被动语态的具体形式。(转载)

被动语态语法归纳(Passive Voice)(最新更新) - David Zhou - 牛津初中英语

 

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