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牛津初中英语

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宾语补足语(Object complement)用法归纳(未完,待续)  

2011-09-08 10:39:33|  分类: 语法归纳 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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概念:英语中含有某些意义的动词跟了宾语后句子仍不完整,还须要一个补足成分,这种补足成分叫做宾语补足语。宾语补足语是句子的主要成分,这样的句型为:主语+谓语动词+宾语+宾语补足语。

由名词、形容词、副词、介词短语充当宾语补足语,用以说明宾语的类属、性质、状态等意义;由非谓语动词即不定式、现在分词、过去分词充当宾语补足语,用以说明宾语的动作。

 

不同形式的宾语补足语

主要搭配的动词

例句

名词

make, name, call, think, consider, choose, wish, find, elect

We made him our monitor.

She found him a very clever boy.

They call her XiaoZhang.

形容词

believe, think, get, keep, make, find, set, like, wish, see, consider, prove, have, leave, paint, drive, turn, cut

You should keep your classroom clean.

I found the movie very interesting.

The noise drives me mad.

I found the dog dead.

动词不定式

(部分动词后的to需省略)

advise, allow, ask, cause, expect, force, get, help, invite, order, remind, request, require, teach, tell, train, want, warn, wish, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, smell, taste, observe, have, make, let, allow, beg, drive, encourage, forbid, permit, persuade

They asked me to get there on time.

Nobody heard him cry for help.

I often see the boys play basketball after school.

 

现在分词

keep, mind, prevent, remember, stop, start, smell, excuse, send, see, hear,  watch , notice smell, taste, feel, observe, have, get, set, leave

Do you hear someone knocking at the door?

I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face.

The heavy rain prevented us coming here on time.

Can you smell something burning?

过去分词

make, get, have, keep, leave

My grandfather had his old house rebuilt.

I must get my bike repaired.

He was trying to make himself understood.

副词

find

I followed him in

She ordered them away.

介词短语

keep, find, leave

To her surprise, she found herself in a different world.

Please make yourself at home.

I left my pen on my desk at home.

宾语补足语使用注意事项:

①当感官动词和使役动词,如:see hear notice watch hear observe, listen to, feel(感官动词)make have let get(使役动词)接宾补时,不定式的符号to必须省略。但在被动语态中,动词后要加to。 

主动语态:The policeman made him tell everything.

被动语态:He was made to tell everything by the policeman.

 

②感官动词see, hear, watch, notice, observe后面的宾语补足语既可跟不带to的动词不定式,也可跟现在分词,其区别在于前者表示“经常性的,习惯性的动作”,后者表示“正在发生的瞬间动作”。

I often hear her sing English songs in the room.

Suddenly, Zhang Hua heard someone shouting “Fire! Fire!”

 

③在help后,不定式可以带to,也可不带。

Lucy often helps her brother (to) learn English.

 

④有些动词只能用现在分词作宾语补足语,如:keep, mind, prevent, stop。动词find, catch等的宾语可由现在分词作宾语补足语。

She caught her son smoking a cigarette.

We’d better keep the fire burning.

I don’t mind you joking. I like it.

The heavy rain prevented us coming here on time.

I found him drinking my whisky.

 

⑤hope, demand, suggest等动词后面不能接不定式作宾语补足语。

错误:I hope you to come here tomorrow.

正确:I hope you can come here tomorrow.

 

⑥表示心理状态的动词consider, think, believe, discover, find, imagine, judge, suppose, prove等动词后的不定式通常是“to be+形容词或名词”结构,to be常可省略。

We consider him (to be) a good teacher. 

He proved that theory (to be) very important. 

I thought her (to be) nice and honest the first time I met her.

 

⑦当宾语是不定式、动名词或宾语从句时, 往往把宾语放在它的补足语后,而用it作句子的形式宾语,放在宾语补足语之前,将真正的宾语置于补足语之后。如:

I think it wrong to smoke in public.

I find it hard to learn English well.

She kept it secret that she hadn’t passed the exam.

I think it important that we should keep calm.

 

课本例句:

1.         Studying Zhalong helps us learn about protecting wildlife. (8A 79)

2.         Zhalong needs more people to feed birds. (8A 79)

3.         People call Zhalong Birds’ Home. (8A 81)

4.         Sandy thought herself a good birdwatcher. (8A 81)

5.         I found the article on wildlife interesting. (8A 81)

6.         Sandy calls her parrot Chatty. (8A 81)

7.         This problem made me very unhappy. (9A 15)

8.         We call the baby panda Xi Wang. (9A 15)

9.         Mille finds maths very difficult. (9A 16)

10.     Peter has had his bicycle repaired. (9A 17)

11.     Amy has just found a wallet lying on the ground. (9A 17)

 

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