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牛津初中英语

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定语从句语法归纳  

2012-03-01 22:22:24|  分类: 语法归纳 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、定义

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句的作用相当于形容词,用来修饰主句中的某一名词或代词或整个主句,所以,也称作形容词性从句。

被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。

在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词两种。关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等;关系副词有when, where, why等。

关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。

The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman.  

该句中,who is  shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词the man, “who”是引导定语从句的关系词,代替先行词the man,在定语从句中作主语。

 

二、关系代词引导的定语从句

引导定语从句的关系代词主要有who, whom, whose, which, that等。它们分别代替前面的先行词,并在定语从句中作主语、宾语或定语。

1.who指人,在从句中做主语

The boys who are playing football are from Class One.

2. whom指人,在定语从句中充当宾语,常可省略,一般也可用who替代。但在介词后面以及在非限制性定语从句中只能用whom。

  Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about. 

  The man who/whom you met just now is my friend.

    Two men, neither of whom I had ever seen before, came into my office. (在介词后面不用who)

3. which指物,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略。

  Football is a game which is liked by most boys. ( which 在句子中做主语)

  This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. ( which 在句子中做宾语)

4. that既可指人也可指物。指人时,相当于who或者whom;指物时,相当于which。在定语从句中作主语或宾语,做宾语时常省略。

  The people that/who come to visit the city are all here. (在句子中做主语)

  Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning? (在句子中做宾语)

5. whose通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语,后面要紧跟被修饰的名词。

  He has a friend whose father is a doctor.

  I lived in a house whose roof has fallen in.

  whose指物时,常用以下结构来代替

The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired.

=The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.

Do you like the book whose color is yellow?

=Do you like the book the color of which is yellow?

 

三、关系副引导的定语从句

    引导定语从句的关系副词有when, where或 why等。when, where, why分别在定语从句中作状语,在意义上相当于介词+which结构,分别代替表示时间、地点或原因的先行词。

1. when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。

  I still remember the day when I first came to this school.

  我仍然记得我第一次来到这所学校的那一天。(when= on which)

  He came at a time when we needed him most.

  他是在我们最需要他的时候来的。(when= at which)

  We will never forget the year 1949, when th People's Republic of China was founded.

  我们永远忘不了1949年,那是中华人民共和国成立的一年。(when= in which)

2. where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。

  I recently went back to the town where I was born.

  我最近曾回过一次我出生的城市。(where = in which)

  I would like to live in a country where there is plenty of sunshine.

  我想住在一个阳光充足的国家。(where = in which)

  What's the name of the place where you spent your holiday.

  你度假的那个地方叫什么名字?(where = at which)

3. why 指原因,在限制性定语从句中作原因状语。

  Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。(why = for which)

  Te reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。

 

特别提醒:

  无论是关系代词,还是关系副词,都在定语从句中取代了先行词,因此,先行词在定语从句中不复出现。

【误】This is the book that I borrowed it yesterday.

【正】This is the book that I borrowed yesterday.

     这就是我昨天借的书。(that在定语从句中取代了先行词the book,作borrowed的宾语,因此,要去掉it)

 

【以下内容初中考点一般不涉及,为拓展之用】

四、关系代词和关系副词的选用

   引导定语从句的关系代词和关系副词的选用,比较复杂除了牵涉到所指的先行词是人还是物,所引导的定语从句是限制性的还是非限制性的,以及关系词在从句中充当什么句子成份外,还要根据习惯用法而定。

1. 只用who

  在下列情况下,一般不能用that代替who。

(1) 在非限制定语从句中。

  His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him.

  他妈妈十分地爱他,对他要求很严格。

(2) 先行词是one, anyone, those时。

  One who has nothing to fear for himself dares to tell the truth.

  一个无所畏惧的人敢说真话。

  Anyone who breaks the law shall be published.  

  任何犯法的人都将受到惩罚。

  Those who are against the plan put up your hands please.

  凡是反对这项计划的人,请举手。

(3) 在there / here be开头的句子中。

  Here is a boy who wants to see you.

  有个男孩想见你。

(4) 先行词与定语从句被其他词所分隔时。

  Don't tell anyone about the secret who oughtn't to know.

  不要把这秘密告诉任何一个不该知道它的人。

  I was the only person in my office who was invited.

  我是办公室里唯一受到邀请的人。

2. 只用which,whom

  在下列情况下,一般不能用that代替which,whom。

(1) 在非限制性定语从句中。

  The weather was very terrible, which we hadn't expected.

  天气非常糟糕,这我们没有料到。

(2) 介词后面。

  关系代词紧跟在介词或短语介词后面,只能用which或whom,不能用that。

  He climbed up to the top of a large rock, from which he got a good view.

  他爬到一块巨大的岩石顶上,从那里他看到很好的景色。

  They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn't answer.

  他们问了我许多问题,大部分我都不会回答。

3. 只用that

  在下列情况下,限制性定语从句中一般只用that引导。

(1) 当先行词为everything, anything, nothing, all, none, few, little等词时,或当先行词被every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much等词修饰时。

  Everything that they said was true.

  他所说的一切都是真的。

  He is dead and there's nothing that can be done.

  他死了,再也没有什么办法了。

  There was little that we could do to help her.

  我们没有什么能帮助她的。

  These walls are all that remain of the ancient city.

  这些墙是这座古城所残存下来的全部。

(2) 当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。

  The first place (that) they visited in London was the Big Ben.

  在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大本钟。

  She was probably the hardest working student (that) I have ever taught.

  她也许是我所教学生中学习最勤奋的。

(3) 当先行词被the very, the only修饰时。

  This is the very grammar book (that) I want to buy. 

  这正是我要买的语法书。

  Beauty is the only thing (that) Emily can be proud of.

  美丽是埃米莉唯一能骄傲的东西。

(4) 当先行词为who或前面有who, which等疑问代词时。

   Who that has common sense will believe such nonsense

  有常识的人谁会相信这种无聊的事情?

  Who is the man that is standing by the gate.

  站在门口的那个人是谁?

  Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

  哪件T恤衫最合我的身?

(5) 当先行词为人与事物或动物时。

  The driver and his car that fell into the river have not yet been discovered.

  掉入河里的司机与车都还没有找到。

(6) 先行词在定语从句中做表语时。

  She is no longer the sweet girl (that) she used to be.

  她再也不是过去那个甜美的女孩了。

4. 关系副词与关系代词的选择

  当先行词是表示时间、地点或原因的名词时,定语从句用关系副词还是关系代词来引导,要根据关系词在定语从句中所担当的句子成分来决定。

  I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together.

  我永远忘不了我们一起度假的日子。(when作状语)

  I will never forget the days which we spent together.

  我永远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。(which作we spent宾语)

  I know a place where we can have a picnic.

  我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。(where作状语) 

  I know a place which is famous for its beautiful natural scenery.

  我知道一个以自然景色优美而闻名的地方。(which作主语)

 

五、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

  根据定语从句在句中所起的作用,可分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句两大类。

1. 限制性定语从句

  限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,用于修饰和限定先行词。如果去掉,主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。书写时不用逗号与先行词分开。

  This is the boy who broke the window. 这就是打破窗子的孩子。

  I have a book which teaches English grammar. 我有一本讲解英语语法的书。

  The people whom you met in the hall are from Japan. 你在大厅见到的那些人来自日本。

 

2. 非限制性定语从句

  非限制性定语从句在意义上只是一个附加修饰语,对先行词或主句作些附加的说明。如果去掉,主句的意思仍然清楚。书写时往往用逗号与先行词分开。

  I, who am your friend, will share the work with you.

  我是你的朋友,将与你分担这项工作。

  New Concept English is intended for foreign students, which is known to us all.

  新概念英语是专为外国学生编写的,这是我们大家都知道的。

 

六、关系词的省略

  在下列情况下,关系代词或关系副词在非正式文体中可以省略。

1. 关系代词that, which, who, whom在定语从句中做宾语时,常可省略。

  Are these keys (that which) you were looking for

  这是你正在寻找的钥匙吗?

  The man (who/that) I was sitting net to on the plane talked all the time.

  飞机上坐在我旁边的那个人一直在喋喋不休。

2. 以the way为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由in which或that引导,而且通常可以省略。

  I don't like the way (that / in which) she walks.

  我不喜欢她走路的样子。

  The way (that / in which) he answered the questions was surprising.

  他回答这些问题的方式令惊奇。

3. 在the time when, the place where, the reason why结构中,when, where, why可省略。

  I shall never forget the day (when) we first met.

  我永远不能忘记我们第一次见面的那一天。

  That's the place (where) he stayed when he was in the country.

  那就是他在乡下呆过的地方。

 

七、介词+关系代词引导的定语从句

介词+关系代词引导的定语从句是一种非常常见但也比较复杂的定语从句结构。

  关系代词whom, which在从句中作介词宾语时,可以跟介词一起放在从句与主句之间(that, who不可以),也可以把介词放在从句中有关动词的后面,使关系代词紧跟它所修饰的先行词。

  He is a man of rich experience, from whom much can be learned. 

  = He is a man of rich experience, whom much can be learned from.

  他是个经验丰富的人,从他那儿可以学到很多。

  This is the famous singer about whom we have often talked.

  这就是那位我们经常谈论的著名歌唱家。

  She's got three lucky pens, two of which she never uses.

  她有三只幸运笔,其中两只从未用过。

  In the basket I find many apples, some of which have gone bad.

  我发现篮子里有好些苹果,有些已经坏了。

  There are fifty students in our class, most of whom are from big cities.

  我们班有50个学生,其中大多数来自大城市。

 

八、定语从句的主谓一致

      当关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,谓语动词应与先行词的人称和数保持一致。

  I, who am your best friend, will do all that I can to help you.

  我是你的好朋友,我会尽我一切所能来帮你。

  The family, who are fond of music, go to the concert once a month.

  这家人很爱音乐,他们每月都去听一次音乐会。

  He is one of the boys in our class who speak English well.

  他是班上英语说得很好的男生之一。(one of +复数名词+关系代词引导的定语从句谓语动词用复数形式)

  He is the only one of the boys in our class who speaks English well.

  他是班上唯一英语说得很好的男生。(the (only) one  the very one the right one of +复数名词+关系代词 引导的定语从句谓语动词用单数形式)

 

 

江苏13城市中考试题汇编:

(   ) 1. The words that we should pay attention to _______ on the blackboard. (08宿迁)

    A. being written    B. are written       C. is writing               D. writing

(    )2. ----The volunteers are doing a great job in Yushu. (2010扬州)

            ----Yes. They are helping the people ___ are suffering from the earthquake. (2010扬州)

     A. which             B. what               C. /                           D. who

(   ) 3. They want to develop a kind a dog-friendly food ____ will help dog owners cool down their pets.

     (2010常州)

     A. who               B. what               C. which                    D. whether

(   ) 4. The girl _____won the gold medal comes from Beijing Sunshine Secondary School. (2010镇江)

      A. who               B. which             C. what                      D. whom

(   ) 5. One of the most interesting places in Yangzhou ________ are often visited by foreigners is

     the West Slender Lake. (2011扬州)

      A. what               B. who                C. that                       D. /

 

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